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Human Physiology Book By Chatterjee Free Extra Quality 143


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Human Physiology Book By Chatterjee Free Extra Quality 143


ASP acts locally in adipose tissue, where it stimulates glucose uptake, increases the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), and inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase activity (Fig. 1). These actions of ASP increase the efficiency of triglyceride synthesis and storage in adipocytes (55,56). C3 knockout mice, with an inability to produce ASP, exhibit delayed postprandial lipid clearance in mice (57). Intraperitoneal administration of exogenous ASP to mice accelerates the clearance of free fatty acids and triglycerides from the circulation after oral fat administration (58,59). Results from a genetic study demonstrating that plasma ASP levels are related to genes controlling total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels (60) support a role for ASP in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans. In addition, patients with combined familial hyperlipidemia have a delayed postprandial increase of plasma C3 concentrations, suggesting a potential link between the ASP precursor and impaired free fatty acid clearance and VLDL overproduction (61). Lastly, a recent study of patients experiencing marked weight loss after gastric bypass surgery reported that the decrease of the atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo)-B is closely related to the decrease of plasma ASP levels (62).


For the past 20 years most of my research has been focused on investigating the potential health benefits of various dietary components or food patterns, which have been explored in the context of randomized controlled trials in free-living adult populations. Some of the interventions have involved vegetarian diets, soy foods and soy food components, garlic, omega-3 fats/fish oil/flax oil, antioxidants, Ginkgo biloba, and popular weight loss diets. These trials have ranged in duration from 8 weeks to a year, with study outcomes that have included weight, blood lipids and lipoproteins, inflammatory markers, glucose, insulin, blood pressure and body composition. Most of these trials have been NIH-funded. The most recent of these was an NIH funded weight loss diet study - DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) that involved randomizing 609 generally healthy, overweight/obese adults for one year to either a Healthy Low-Fat or a Healthy Low-Carb diet. The main findings were published in JAMA in 2018, and many secondary and exploratory analyses are in progress testing and generating follow-up hypotheses.In the past few years the long-term interests of my research group have shifted to include two additional areas of inquiry. One of these is Stealth Nutrition. The central hypothesis driving this is that in order for more effective and impactful dietary improvements to be realized, public health professionals need to consider adding non-health related approaches to their strategies toolbox. Examples would be the connections between food and 1) global warming and climate change, 2) animal rights and welfare, and 3) human labor abuses (e.g., slaughterhouses, agriculture fields,